Listening A1 I can understand familiar words and very basic phrases concerning myself, my family and immediate concrete surroundings when people speak slowly and clearly. A2 I can understand phrases and the highest frequency vocabulary related to areas of most immediate personal relevance e. I can catch the main point in short, clear, simple messages and announcements.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Although its creation predated apartheid, the African National Congress ANC became the primary force in opposition to the government after its conservative leadership was superseded by the organisation's Youth League ANCYL in They brought the notion that white authority could only be overthrown through mass campaigns.
This unleashed the s Programme of Action, instituted inwhich laid emphasis on the right of the African people to freedom under the flag of African Nationalism.
It laid out plans for strikesboycottsand civil disobedienceresulting in occasionally violent clashes, with mass protests, stay-aways, boycotts and strikes predominating. The May Day stay-away was a strong, successful expression of black grievances.
The Prime Minister was haughty in his rejoinder, referring the Council to the Native Affairs Department and threatening to treat insolence callously.
By defying the laws, the organisation hoped for mass arrests that the government wouldn't be able to cope with.
The group was apprehended, but the rest of the country followed its example. Defiance spread throughout the country and black people disregarded racial laws by, for example, walking through "whites only" entries. At the campaign's zenith, in Septembermore than 2, people from 24 different towns had been arrested for defying various laws.
By the end of the campaign, the government arrested 8, people, but was forced to temporarily relax its apartheid legislation. In addition, as a direct result of the campaign, membership of the ANC increased and attention was drawn to apartheid's injustices.
Once things had calmed down, however, the government responded with an iron fist, taking several supreme measures—among which were the Unlawful Organisations Act, the Suppression of Communism Actthe Public Safety Act and the Criminal Procedures Act. Thus, in the longer term, this spelt defeat for the resistance movement.
They received nine months' imprisonment, suspended for two years. The Criminal Law Amendment Act stated that "[a]ny person who in any way whatsoever advises, encourages, incites, commands, aids or procures any other person [ Protesters had argued to the courts that different amenities for different races ought to be of an equal standard.
The proscription meant that the headship was now restricted to its homes and adjacent areas and they were banned from attending public gatherings. Though cruelly limited, the movement was still able to struggle against the oppressive instruments of the state.
Support for the ANC and its endeavours increased. Meanwhile, on the global stage, India demanded that apartheid be challenged by the United Nations. It led to the establishment of a UN commission on apartheid.
This first encouraged black South Africans in their campaign, but, after five months, the African and Indian Congresses opted to call it off because of the increasing number of riots, strikes and heavier sentences on those who took part.
During the campaign, almost 8, black and Indian people had been detained. At the same time, however, ANC membership grew from 7, to , and the number of subdivisions went from 14 at the start of the campaign to 87 at its end.
There was also a change in headship. The intention was to study the national problems on an all-inclusive basis and outline a manifesto of amity.
Delegates were drawn from each of these establishments and a nationwide organiser was assigned. A campaign was publicised for the drafting of a freedom charter, and a call was made for 10, unpaid assistants to help with the conscription of views from across the country and the organisation of the Congress of the People.
Demands were documented and sent to the local board of the National Action Council in preparation for drafting the Charter. The Congress of the People was held from 26 to 27 June in Kliptownjust south of Johannesburg. Under the attentive gaze of the constabulary, 3, delegates gathered to revise and accept the Freedom Charter that had been endorsed by the ANC's National Executive on the eve of the Congress.
The Freedom Charter, which articulated a vision for South Africa radically different from the partition policy of apartheid, emphasising that South Africa should be a just and non-racial society.
It called for a one-person-one-vote democracy within a single unified state and stated that all people should be treated equally before the law, that land should be "shared among those who work it" and that the people should "share in the country's wealth"—a statement often been interpreted as a call for socialist nationalisation.
The congress delegates had consented to almost all the sections of the charter when the police announced that they suspected treason and recorded the names and addresses of all those present. On 9 August that year, the women marched on the Union Buildings in Pretoria, protesting against the pass laws.
On the morning of 5 Decemberhowever, the police detained Congress Alliance leaders. The charge was based on statements and speeches made during both the Defiance Campaign and the Congress of the People.
The Freedom Charter was used as proof of the Alliance's communist intent and their conspiracy to oust the government. The State relied greatly on the evidence of Professor Arthur Murray, an ostensible authority on Marxism and Communism.The Internal Organisation of Business Marks and Spencers Marks and Spencers is the first business I am going to write about in terms .
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