Diet Some types of hypertension can be managed through lifestyle and dietary choices, such as engaging in physical activity, reducing alcohol and tobacco use, and avoiding a high-sodium diet. Reducing the amount of salt Average salt intake is between 9 grams g and 12 g per day in most countries around the world. The WHO recommends reducing intake to under 5 g a day, to help decrease the risk of hypertension and related health problems.
Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate ATP metabolism.
Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders.
Introduction Magnesium is the eight most common element in the crust of the Earth and is mainly tied up within mineral deposits, for example as magnesite magnesium carbonate and dolomite.
The most plentiful source of biologically available magnesium, however, is the hydrosphere i. Magnesium is an essential electrolyte for living organisms and is the fourth most abundant mineral in the human body. Humans need to consume magnesium regularly to prevent magnesium deficiency, but as the recommended daily allowance for magnesium varies, it is difficult to define accurately what the exact optimal intake should be.
Functions of Magnesium Magnesium is primarily found within the cell where it acts as a counter ion for the energy-rich ATP and nuclear acids.
Magnesium is a cofactor in more than enzyme systems that regulate diverse biochemical reactions in the body, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve transmission, neuromuscular conduction, signal transduction, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium is also necessary for structural function of proteins, nucleic acids or mitochondria.
It is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, and for both aerobic and anaerobic energy production—oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis—either indirectly as a part of magnesium-ATP complex, or directly as an enzyme activator.
Magnesium also plays a key role in the active transport of calcium and potassium ions across cell membranes, a process that is important for nerve impulse conduction, muscle contraction, vasomotor tone and normal heart rhythm.
As natural calcium antagonist the block of N-methyl-d-aspartate NMDA receptor channels by external magnesium is believed to be of great physiological importance.
Moreover, it contributes to the structural development of bone and is required for the adenosine triphosphate-dependent synthesis of the most important intracellular antioxidant glutathione [ 67891011 ]. Magnesium excretion is mainly regulated by the kidney.
Magnesium is beside sodium, potassium and calcium an important electrolyte for human metabolism. Most of the remaining magnesium is contained in skeletal muscle and soft tissue. The magnesium content of bone decreases with age, and magnesium that is stored in this way is not completely bioavailable during magnesium deprivation.
Functions of magnesium selection [ 678910 ]. Magnesium is involved in more than essential metabolic reactions e. Cardiovascular system Economization of cardiac pump function, regulation of potassium movement in myocardial cells, protection against stress, vasodilation of the coronary and peripheral arteries, reduction of platelet aggregation.
Membrane function Transmembrane electrolyte flux, active transport of potassium and calcium across cell membranes, regulation of cell adhesion and cell migration. Structural roles Component of mineralized bone structure, microarchitecturemultiple enzyme complexes, mitochondria, proteins, polyribosomes, and nucleic acids.
Nutrient metabolism Metabolic activation and utilisation of vitamin D, B-vitamins e. Normal serum magnesium concentration is about 0. It is categorized into three fractions.
Magnesium and Nutrition Dietary surveys of people in Europe and in the United States still reveal that intakes of magnesium are lower than the recommended amounts [ 202122 ]. Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have shown that people consuming Western-type diets are low in magnesium content, i.
This is likely a result of the increasing use of fertilizers and processed foods [ 59222324 ]. Nuts, seeds and unprocessed cereals are also rich in magnesium. Legumes, fruit, fish and meat have an intermediate magnesium concentration.
Some types of food processing, such as refining grains in ways that remove the nutrient-rich germ and bran, lower magnesium content substantially.Forward: Although this depression treatment by magnesium essay was written originally to address the role of magnesium as a depression treatment, the role of magnesium deficiency as cause of vast other morbidity and mortality is also addressed.
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