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Most children do not develop a sophisticated understanding of how scientific knowledge is constructed. Methods of science dominate the school science curriculum, with little emphasis on the role of theory, explanation, or models. However, more research is needed that provides insight into the experiences and conditions that facilitate their understanding of science as a way of knowing.
Science is not only a body of knowledge, but also a way of knowing. Our vision of K-8 science features this understanding as one of the four strands. We have elevated this focus to the status of a strand for several reasons.
We view understanding of the nature and structure of scientific knowledge and the process by which it is developed as a worthy end in and of itself.
Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K The National Academies Press.
For more than a century, educators have argued that students should understand how scientific knowledge is constructed Rudolph, One rationale that is often invoked, but not empirically tested, is that understanding science makes for a more informed citizenry and supports democratic participation.
That is, citizens who understand how scientific knowledge is produced will be careful consumers of scientific claims about public scientific issues e. A second justification among educators is that understanding the structure and nature of science makes one better at doing and learning science see review by Sandoval, That is, if students come to see science as a set of practices that builds models to account for patterns of evidence in the natural world, and that what counts as evidence is contingent on making careful observations and building arguments, then they will have greater success in their efforts to build knowledge.
Schauble and colleaguesfor example, found that fifth grade students designed better experiments after instruction about the purpose of experimentation.
We begin the chapter with an elaboration on science as a way of knowing, sketching the goals of the enterprise, the nature and structure of scientific knowledge, and the process by which it is constructed.
That is, it represents currently accepted ideas about the nature of scientific knowledge that are important to teach in grades K Building on this model of science, we first turn to the cognitive research literatures to examine the intellectual resources relevant to this strand that children bring to kindergarten.
In this chapter, we first discuss how during the K-8 years, they build on these understandings to develop some initial epistemological ideas about what knowledge is and how it is constructed. Next, we consider how they begin to think about what scientific knowledge is and how it is constructed.
Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: It allows us to point to developmental trends and base-level competencies that can be expected in a given age span in normally developing children. A few studies have begun to explore the effects of teaching approaches on the development of epistemological understanding.
We offer a limited discussion of this literature here.
Later, in Chapters 6 and 9we discuss in more depth studies that provide insight as to supportive classroom conditions and provide better proxies for what is possible when those conditions exist. In this explication, we consider the goals of the enterprise, the nature and structure of scientific knowledge, and how knowledge is developed, with a focus on what is most relevant for student learning.
For a more complete discussion of our view of the nature of science, see Chapter 2. While we acknowledge there is no simple correspondence with this model of science and the epistemic goals of the curriculum at any particular grade level, consideration of both relevant cognitive research and instructional design is informed by close consideration of the normative model.
Osborne and colleagues have proposed taking a consensus view to identify the ideas about science that should be part of the school science curriculum. They conducted a study to examine the opinions of scientists, science educators, individuals involved in promoting the public understanding of science, and philosophers, historians, and sociologists of science.
They identified nine themes encapsulating key ideas about the nature of science that were considered to be an essential component of school science curriculum. These included science and certainty, analysis and interpretation of data, scientific method and critical testing, hypothesis and pre- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: First, Sandoval asserts that viewing scientific knowledge as constructed is of primary importance that underscores a dialectical relationship between theory and evidence.
Students, if they are to understand what science is, must accept that it is something that people do and create. The second theme is that scientific methods are diverse: Rather than relying on one or several rote methods, science depends on ways of evaluating scientific claims e.
Third, scientific knowledge comes in different forms, which vary in their explanatory and predictive power e. Fourth, Sandoval asserts that scientific knowledge varies in certainty. Acknowledging variable certainty, Sandoval argues, invites students to engage the ideas critically and to evaluate them using epistemological criteria.
Another approach to defining the aspects of understanding the epistemology of science that science curriculum should inhere is to consider the aspects of epistemology that have been linked to enhancing the development of science understanding. For example, there is evidence that when students come to view argumentation as a central feature of science, this can have considerable positive effects on their understanding and use of investigative strategies see, e.
Songer and Linn have also analyzed the effects of a dynamic versus a static view of science and found that a dynamic view is conducive to knowledge integration.- by Ludwig Feuerbach's belief that any projection of spirit or mind is our own wishful thinking, growing out of our dissatisfaction with life (The world is material only) - Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations.
The traditional knowledge of non-European cultures is the expression of specific ways of living in the world, of a specific relationship between society and culture, and of a specific approach to the acquisition and construction of knowledge.
Beliefs are basically assumptions that we make about the world and our values stem from those beliefs. Our values are things that we deem important and can include concepts like ‘“ equality, honesty, education, effort, perseverance, loyalty, faithfulness, conservation of the . UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY – Vol.
II - Belief and Attitude Change in the Context of Human Development - Carol Underwood ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Although belief and attitude changes often follow technological innovation. “This time is going to be different.” Those are the first words we tell ourselves when we set a goal to change our behavior.
It does not matter if that behavior change is to quit smoking, to lose weight, or to start exercising.. Despite our past failures, we believe this time we will summon the willpower to .
by Moya K. Mason. Today we live in a world which is so full of sights and sounds that it is almost overwhelming. With the onslaught of the Internet and its global repercussions, our lives are dictated by our ability or inability to take advantage of the new innovations that have gripped our planet.