The report recognised the fact that in India, women were oppressed under a system of structural hierarchies and injustices. During this period, Indian feminists were influenced by the Western debates being conducted about violence against women.
For them, as indeed for later feminists, it was essential to break any suggested deterministic link between corporeal characteristics, mental faculties and social role. Reason, they mostly claimed, was a universal human capacity independent of corporeal differences Wollstonecraft, Mill and Taylor Mill.
There were additional reasons for early feminists such as Wollstonecraft in the 18th century and Harriet Taylor Mill in the 19th, to regard their bodies with suspicion. In the context in which they lived as middle class women, their bodies were commodities to be preened and maintained, to enable them to entice men into matrimony so that they would have the material means to live.
The body was also a source of vulnerability. John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor Mill were preoccupied with the way their susceptibility to illness interrupted their ability to produce philosophical work and cast the shadow of early death over their life plans.
Moreover any celebration of the body as source of sensual pleasure was constrained by a risk of pregnancy.
The body also came to prominence in 19th century feminism in Britain through the campaign led by Josephine Butler against the Contagious Diseases Act Jordan This act permitted women to be forcibly examined for venereal disease.
The campaign of inspection was viewed as a particularly outrageous violation of such rights and the women viewed as victims of male and medical appropriation of their bodies. This absence of control found its most extreme example in the case of the bodies of slave women, where the body became literally the property of another, disciplined in a way that bore a marked contrast to that articulated by Wollstonecraft.
I have ploughed, and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! I could work as much and eat as much as a man—when I could get it—and bear de lash a well!
It is produced by the same cause, and manifested very much in the same way. Following the first world war and the granting of suffrage, women continued to campaign on issues of sexual equality, and control over their bodies.
The issue of reproduction came to the fore in political philosophies of the right and left. On the political right, following the loss of life in the war, motherhood became a concern of the state and a public duty.
Moreover increasing concerns with eugenics and racial purity led to a desire to control the reproduction of certain groups within society. At the same time, within feminist circles, the Abortion Reform Association was formed and echoed both earlier and later feminist demands for the right of every woman to decide what should happen to her body.
But an implicit dualism remained. The body was seen as something owned by, and thereby separate from, the self, something over which the self had rights. The Second Sex It was, however, with the publication of The Second Sex by Simone De Beauvoir that feminist theorising about the relation between the body and the self took center stage.
What is central to her account is that such bodily existence and the point of view it provided, is lived differently for men and women. Nonetheless her account still provides the starting point for contemporary work on the relation between bodies and selves, and it has recently been revisited as providing a complex and non reductive account of the intertwining of the material and the cultural in the formation of our embodied selves.
See the entry on Simone de BeauvoirGatensKruks But she does so with a warning. Such data are not to be thought of as determining individual characteristics or social life.
See the entry on feminist perspectives on sex and gender. Standardly sex was seen as fixed by biology, and gender, as the social meanings attached to such biology, seen as historically and socially variable, and open to change.
GatensSandford For her the data of biology, offered as facts, lack the fixity which later accounts sometimes took for granted. She shows herself aware of the way in which cultural myths and metaphors influence the telling of the biological story, even as she herself offers it to us.
In pointing out the ideological influence on the descriptions of the active sperm and the passive egg 44 she anticipates the work of later writers such as Emily Martin Martin Moreover she shows herself consistently aware of the possibilities which the biological data leave open to us, stressing alternatives to heterosexual reproduction throughout the biological realm, the incidence of hermaphrodism in human and other animals, and drawing attention in the animal kingdom to cases where care of the eggs and the young is done by both male and female animals.
The consequence is that not even the biology of sexual difference is determined. On the other hand, the meanings and significance which we attach to our materiality do not float free of that materiality.
Here she is explicitly offering her narrative as an account of lived experience, the body in situation.
He is encouraged to climb trees and play rough games. As the girl enters puberty Beauvoir describes the way in which her body becomes to her a source of horror and shame.
These negative descriptions are continued for sexual initiation, marriage, and motherhood. Her phenomenology of the maternal body has been especially controversial. These accounts have been a source of criticism, particularly when later feminists sought to celebrate the female body as a source of pleasure, fertility, and empowerment see below.
However it is important to recognise that what she was offering was a descriptive phenomenology of female bodies as lived in specific situations. It is this situation which her writings hoped to highlight and change.Part of a series on Feminism Women Girls Femininity History Social Feminist history History of feminism Women's history American British Canadian German Timelines Women's suffrage Muslim countries US Other women's rights Suffrage by country Australia Canada Japan Kuwait New Zealand Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom Wales United States In states Utah Waves First Second Third Fourth .
In the first major rallying cry for feminism, The Suffragettes fought vehemently for women's rights, most specifically, the right to vote. Their movements and . Liberal feminism asserts the equality of men and women through political and legal reform. It is an individualistic form of feminism and feminist theory, which focuses on women’s ability to show and maintain their equality through their own actions and choices.
Feminism? You want feminism? Which brand would you like? Feminism -- Definitions of Terms. Index of Terms. Preamble. Whatever positive image the word feminist may have had, it has been tarnished by those who have made it their own, and I, for one, am content to leave the militants in full possession of the term.
— Dale O'Leary in her book. Comment: The cover has visible markings and wear.
The cover has curled corners. The cover may have stickers, markings, or sticker adhesive on it. The pages show normal wear and tear. There is writing, discoloration, or markings on the edges of the pages.
|Feminism - New World Encyclopedia||Myths about Feminism What is Feminism? The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines feminism as:|
The feminism movement of the s and s led many women in the western world to abandon the use of beauty products as this would degrade women to sex objects .