The French language in Canada The valley of the St. Lawrence River, first explored by Jacques Cartier during his second voyage to North America inwas colonized by France during the 17th and 18th centuries. In France permanently ceded to Britain most of the territory known as Acadia but maintained its hold over New France.
Paris, France French philosopher and satirist The French satirist writer using sarcasm to communicate his message and political and social philosopher Montesquieu was the first of the great French scholars associated with the Enlightenment a philosophical movement in the eighteenth century that rejected traditional social and religious ideas by placing reason as the most important ideal.
His father, Jacques de Secondat, was a soldier Montesquieu. The influence of this period remained with Charles Louis, showing itself in his deep attachment to the soil.
Montesquieu was also born into a climate of discontent in France. His unsuccessful wars and attempts to dictate religion and culture had a bad effect on France. Knowledge of this situation helps to explain some of Montesquieu's curiosity and his interest in societal rules and laws.
Returning to Bordeaux in to study law, he was admitted to practice before the Bordeaux Parlement parliament in The next five years were spent in Paris, France, continuing his studies.
During this period he developed an intense dislike for the style of life in the capital, which he later expressed in his Persian Letters. In Montesquieu married Jeanne de Lartigue, a Protestant a member of the church that had left the rule of Roman Catholicismwho brought him a large dowry sum of money given in marriage.
He was also elected to the Academy of Bordeaux. The following year, on the death of his uncle Jean Baptiste, he inherited the barony of Montesquieu and the presidency of the Bordeaux Parlement.
Scholarly and literary career Montesquieu had no great enthusiasm for law as a profession. He was much more interested in the spirit that lay behind law.
It is from this interest that his greatest work, The Spirit of the Laws, developed. To free himself in order to continue his scholarly interests, he sold his office as president of the Bordeaux Parlement in With his newly freed time he wrote the Persian Letters.
The Persian Letters was a fierce and bitingly critical view of European civilization and manners. The work takes the form of letters that three Persians people from what is now Iran traveling in Europe send to families and friends at home. Their letters are notes on what they see in the West.
Montesquieu gave his travelers the foreign, commonsense understanding necessary to effectively criticize European French customs and institutions.
Yet he also gave his Persians the weaknesses necessary to make his readers recognize in them their own weaknesses. All sides of European life were criticized.
The message is that society lasts only on the basis of virtue and justice, which is rooted in the need of human cooperation and acceptance. The Spirit of the Laws Montesquieu brought his search for the general laws active in society and history to its completion in his greatest work.
Published inThe Spirit of the Laws was an investigation of the environmental and social relationships that lie behind the laws of civilized society.
Combining the traditions of customary law with those of the modern theories of natural law, Montesquieu redefined law as "the necessary relationships that derive [come] from the nature of things.
In this sense Montesquieu's most basic belief may be viewed as an attempt to state the necessity of law review. The Spirit of the Laws was immediately celebrated as one of the great works of French literature.
He died on February 10,during a trip to Paris. For More Information Joly, Maurice. Edited by John S. The Riddle of the Modern World: Of Liberty, Wealth, and Equality. Oxford University Press, Also read article about Montesquieu from Wikipedia User Contributions:A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and to other resources.
monstermanfilm.com: Persian Letters (Penguin Classics) (): Charles-Louis de Secondat Montesquieu, C. J. Betts: Books. Montesquieu, in full Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, (born January 18, , Château La Brède, near Bordeaux, France—died February 10, , Paris), French political philosopher whose principal work, The Spirit of Laws, was a major contribution to political theory.
Spanish Enlightenment literature is the literature of Spain written during the Age of Enlightenment.. During the 18th century a new spirit was born (it is in essence a continuation of the Renaissance) which swept away the older values of the Baroque and which receives the name of "Enlightenment".
This movement laid its foundations in a . IMAGINING OTHER. How Enlightened was the Enlightenment?. Week Part 1: problematic issues for the Enlightenment. (Part 2 is a concluding discussion of criticisms of enlightenment values and ideas).
CIVIL WAR. In "Democracy after Civil War: A Kantian Paradox," New York University, November 16, , Leonard Wantchekon presents a theory of "post-civil war democratization" which draws upon the model of political order among rational demons as well as sources from "classical political theory, contemporary democratic theory, and the state-building literature.".